...The open-access provision orders NIH to provide the public with online access to published research that was supported by NIH. This means that all NIH-funded investigators will be required to deposit electronic copies of resulting peer-reviewed manuscripts to PubMed Central —NIH's online, publicly accessible journal archive— for posting no later than 12 months after publication. NIH's current policy calls for voluntary submission of manuscripts.
Journal publishers, including the American Chemical Society (which publishes C&EN), have expressed reservations about the mandatory posting of manuscripts. "We question how a mandatory policy can be implemented consistent with respect for author and publisher copyrights and intellectual property interests and why NIH chose not to work more cooperatively with scientific publishers in achieving goals for public access," says Glenn S. Ruskin, director of the ACS Office of Legislative & Government Affairs....
This description of the new law might leave the impression that NIH grantees may deposit their manuscripts any time within 12 months of publication. But deposits must be made immediately upon acceptance in a journal, and PubMed Central must release them to the public within 12 months of publication.
The open access movement:
Putting peer-reviewed scientific and scholarly literature
on the internet. Making it available free of charge and
free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.
Removing the barriers to serious research.