Earthquakes in Chile
after the largest earthquake of the century in Valdivia on May 22, 1960
Time line of Earthquakes in Chile
Earthquakes in Chile
Chile is located on a tectonic plate boundary and a subduction zone called the Peru-Chile trench. A subduction zone is where the ocean crust slides under the continental margin which causes compressional deformation (mountain building), earthquakes and volcanoes. Chile has experienced all of these phenomena-the Andes mountains and a long history of earthquakes and volcanoes. Earthquakes occur at any fault line, but the most destructive earthquakes happen at subduction zones. In fact, the largest earthquake of this century was in Valdivia Chile, on May 21st 1960. Siesmicity has shown us that Chile has continual earthquakes year in and year out, some much bigger than others. In the course of a year and average Chilean experiences what are called "tremors," or small earthquake shakes. Most of these small earthquakes are so small that most people can’t even notice them. The famous earthquake of Valdivia had a magnitude of 9.5 on the ricter scale, and seismicity determined that there were several earthquakes following this one all throughout Chile and into Peru. This massive quake also caused tsunamis with devastating destruction all the way to California, Australia, Hawaii, Japan and the Philippines. A tsunami is a huge wave casued by the movement of the plates under the ocean. It killed over 2,000 people and another 3,000 people injured and left 2,000,000 homeless. Valdivia was the closest to the earthquakes' epicenter, however the cities of Puerto Montt, Concepcion and several other small port towns were highly affected and shook violently. The earthquake physically distorted Chile's landscape with major landslides, violent volcanic eruptions, and other coastal deformations. For example, the rock falls and landslides in the Andes Mountains created an artificial lake on the Rio San Pedro and the Puyehue volcano violently erupted on May 24th at about 47 hours after the main shock. The outstanding destruction from the Valdivia earthquake was devastating, and although Chile hasn’t seen and earthquake with such magnitude since Valdivia, the earth continues to shake the unstable grounds of Chile.
The violent eruption of the volcano Puyehue, which erruped two days after the earthquake, about 200km from the epicenter
SILLY GEOLOGY JOKES
Why don't mountains tell jokes? Because they might crack up!
What do you get when a cow is in an earthquake? A milkshake!
What did the earthquake say to the other earthquake? It's all your fault!
You know you drink too much coffee when a nervous twitch registers
on the Richter scale and the only
jokes cortesy of: http://awards.schools.nsw.edu.au/entry66/facts.htm
The dock area of Angelmo in the port city of Puerto Montt before and after the Earthquake
The disasterous destruction of a tsunami in the town Queule , slightly north of Valdivia, the town was completely wiped out
Tsunami destruction in the town of Ancud, which was hit with waves as high as 50 meters
Other cool sites to check out:
http://awards.schools.nsw.edu.au/entry66/facts.htm -this site has great games, jokes, earthquake experiments, fun facts and more!
www.factmonster.com/ce6/sci/A0839323.html -this site has a lot of cool facts and fun pictures
is an earthquake?
example of the movement of a fault
There are several different types of seismic waves including waves that move through the earth’s surface and ones that move through the interior of the earth. The first type of waves that hits the surface are called P waves (or primary waves), which push and pull with compression and travel though solids, liquids and gasses.
The P waves move like a slinky
After the P waves, come the S waves, (or secondary waves) that travel only through solids and shake the earth in a rippley motion.
S waves move like the movement of this rope
One of the tools that are used to measure earthquake waves are seismographs. These graphs help us calculate the size of the waves, and the location of the focus of the earthquake by using the data of three different stations to triangulate the location of the epicenter (the location on the surface directly above the earthquake’s focus).
This is an example of data taken from a seismograph
Frequency of Earthquakes:
The amount of travel time of the tsunami waves that were caused by the Valdivia earthquake
The subduction process of Chile and the active contiental margin
Coffman, Jerry and Carl Stover. "U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527", United States Government Printing Office, Washington: 1993. URL:www\earthquakes\ASC_-_Chile_Earthquakes__1960.htm
USC Tsunami research group. "The Seismic sea wave of May 22, 1960 along the Chilean Coast" URL: www.usc.edu/dept/tsunamis/index.html
Brunner, Borgna. "Earthquakes" URL: www\earthquakes\Earthquakes_.htm
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Copyright 2000, Columbia University Press. "Plate Tectonics" URL: www.factmonster.com/ce6/sci/A0839323.html
Family Education Network."The Severity of an Earthquake" Columbia University Press 2002, www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0763386.html
Lavenu, Alain and Jose Cembrano. "Geological Society of America, 1997 annual meeting."Geological Society of America (GSA) : Boulder, CO, United States, 1997.
Lander, James F., and Lockridge, Patricia A., "Tsunami on West Coast of United States." U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1989.
NOAA National Data Centers. "Great Chile Earthquake of May 22, 1960 - Anniversary Edition." URL: www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/hazard/slideset/45/45_908_slide.html
Minicucci, Jenna. "Review of the Global Seismographic Network." American Geological Institute Government Affairs Program, 1997. URL: http://www.agiweb.org/legis105/gseisnet.html
Santi, Paul M. "Preliminary Evaluation of Seismic Hazards for Emergency Rescue Route." Association of Engineering Geologists, 2002. URL: http://rock.geosociety.org/pubs/eeg/0211-261.htm
Seismo-Watch, "Southern Chile M 9.5 Earthquake"
Marshak, Stephen. "Earth: Portrait of a Planet" W.W. Norton & Company, New York 2001.
is part of a Geology 211 class project on Processes in Physical Geology.
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